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ǤԴͧö (Competency)

 

ǤԴǡѺö͢մö㹡÷ӧҹ (Competency) Դ㹪ǧ鹢ͧȵɷ 1970 ¹ѡԪҡê David McClelland ӡ֡Ԩҷؤҡ÷ӧҹ㹵˹ǡѹ֧ռŧҹᵡҧѹ McClelland ֧ӡ֡Ԩ¡ؤҡ÷ռšûԺѵԧҹ͡ҡؤҡ÷ռšûԺѵԧҹ Ǩ֧֡Һؤҡ÷ 2 ռšҷӧҹᵡҧѹҧ š֡ҷػ ؤҡ÷ռšûԺѵԧҹը˹觷¡ö (Competency) (û Ѥú, 2549 : 58) .. 1973 McClelland ¹Ԫҡͧ Testing for Competence rather than Intelligence 觶繨شԴͧǤԴͧöзö͸ԺºؤԡѡɳТͧº͹Ѻҹ (Iceberg)

 

 

Ẻͧҹ (The Iceberg Model)

                        (٪ Է, 2550 : 29)

 

                ҡҾ ö͸ԺҤسѡɳТͧؤŹº͹ҹ秷㹹 ǹ˹觷ǹ˹͹ӫöѧࡵѴ Ңҵҧ ¹ (Knowledge) ǹͧѡ Ǫҭ ӹҭɴҹҧ (Skill) Ѻǹͧҹ秷ӫǹջҳҡҹ ǹҨѧࡵ䴪ѴਹѴҡ ǹԷԾŵ;ĵԡͧؤҡ ҷʴ͡ѧ (Social role) Ҿѡɳͧؤŷյ͵ͧ (Self image) سѡɳǹؤ (Trait) ç٧ (Motive) ǹ˹͹ǹդѹѺǹѭҢͧؤ 觡÷ؤդҴö¹ͧҧ зѡ ѧ§ͷзռšûԺѵԧҹⴴ ֧繵ͧçѡѹͧ֡ سѡɳǹؤ Ҿѡɳͧؤŷյ͵ͧ кҷʴ͡ѧҧ ֧зؤš繼ռŧҹⴴ

                ¢ͧ ö մö öѵػʧͧ÷ҹ 2 öе British approach ѵػʧСȹºѵѺͧԷ°ҹТͧѡҹͺؤҡ ¨С˹ҡҵðҹšûԺѵԧҹöѺͧҹԪҪվ öǤԴ֧繡á˹੾Чҹ仵ԪҪվ ǹöе American approach ѵػʧ͡þѲҺؤҡ ˹ҡĵԡͧռšûԺѵԧҹ 觡þѲҺؤҡùеͧ仵Ƿҧͧõͧè öеǤԴ֧ö͡¹ѹ ͧդͧúؤҡ÷ѡɳᵡҧѹ Ѻ¢ͧöеǤԴ American approach մѧ

                Boyatzis (1982 : 58) ӹ ö ¶֧ 觷㹵Ǻؤū觶繵ǡ˹ĵԡͧؤض֧ͧâͧҹѨҾǴͧͧ зؤѾͧ

                Mitrani, Dalziel Fitt (1992 : 11) Ƕ֧öѡɳ੾Тͧؤŷդ§ѺԷԼͼšûԺѵԧҹ㹡÷ӧҹ ʹͧѺ¢ͧ Spencer Spencer (1993 : 9) ¢ͧö繤سѡɳТͧؤŷդѹԧ˵мŵͤջԷԼŢͧࡳ/͡ûԺѵԧҹš÷ӧҹբ鹡 ͡ҡ Spencer Spencer (1993 : 11) ¤¢ͧö繤سѡɳзӤѭͧкؤ (Underlying characteristic) դѹԧ˵ؼŨҡջԷԼŢͧࡳ (Criterion reference) /͡ûԺѵԧҹŧҹ٧ҵðҹ (Superior performance) ö͸Ժ´Ҿ仹

Ҿ ѹҧöмšûԺѵԧҹͧ

                        (Spencer Spencer, 1993 : 11)

                1)            ç٧ (Motive) 觷ؤŤԴ͵ͧҧԧ 觨çѺ㹡á˹ȷҧͧ͡͡ؤʴ֧͡ĵԡ ͡õͺʹͧ͡ö͡仨ҡ觵ҧ ҹ

                2)            سѡɳǹؤ (Trait) 繤سѡɳзҧҾͧؤ֧õͺʹͧͧؤŵ͢ʶҹó༪ԭ

                3)            ǤԴͧͧ (Self concept) ͧǡѺȹ (Attitude) ҹ (Value) Ҿѡɳͧؤŷյ͵ͧ (Self image) 觨ç٧㨷Դĵԡзöӹ¾ĵԡͧؤŷյʶҹóҧ 㹪ǧ

                4)            (Knowledge) 繢ͺࢵͧ੾дҹؤ㴺ؤ˹觤ͺͧ

                5)            ѡ (Skill) 繤ö㹡ûԺѵԧҹ駷ǢͧѺҹҾ Դ ШԵ㨢ͧؤдѺöԴ ˹˵ؼ͡ҧἹ㹡èѴ 㹢ǡѹ˹ѡ֧Ѻ͹ͧ

                سѡɳТͧöз 5 سѡɳй öҨѴࡳͧĵԡʴ͡ѧࡵ¨ӹǹ 2 سѡɳ ѧ

                1)            öзѧࡵ (Visible) (Knowledge) ѡ (Skill) öз͡ʾѲ§

                2)            öз֡ŧͫ͹㹵Ǻؤ (Hidden) ç٧ (Motive) سѡɳǹؤ (Trait) öзҡ͡ѴоѲ

                ͡ҡ ѧöз¡ ǤԴͧͧ (Self concept) ȹ Фҹ öзѺ¹ͧҹҹö¡ý֡ͺ ѡԵԷ ͡ʺó㹡þѲ觷͹ҧҡеͧ

                Dale Hes (1995 : 80) Ƕ֧ö繡ä觷ԴûԺѵԧҹ (Excellence) ͡ûԺѵԧҹ˹͡ (Superior performance) ͡ҡѧ¢ͧö㹴ҹҪվ (Occupational competency) ¶֧ö (Ability) 㹡÷ӡԨҧ ҪվԴûԺѵԧҹ仵ҵðҹ١Ҵѧ ҵðҹ㹷¶֧ͧСͺͧöѺࡳûԺѵԧҹФ͸Ժ¢ͺࢵҹ

                Ѳ Ѳ (2547 : 33) ö (Competency) ¶֧ дѺͧö㹡ûѺкǹȹ (Paradigm) ȹ ĵԡ зѡ ͡ûԺѵԧҹԴسҾ ԷҾ лԷԼ٧ش㹡ûԺѵ˹ҷͧؤҡͧ ؤҡ÷ءդö鹰ҹ˹ҷ͹ѹúǹѹ ФþѲҵͧդöɷᵡҧѹ͡仹͡˹ͨҡöͧҹ˹ҷ 駹ѺѡҾ дѺöҧ (Emotional quotient : EQ) ФöҧʵԻѭ (Intelligence quotient: IQ)

                ҡʹҢҧ öػö͢մö (Competency) ¶֧ (Knowledge) ѡ (Skill) ФسѡɳТͧؤ (Attributes) 觺ؤŹ鹨ʴ͡ԸդԴоĵԡ㹡÷ӧҹ觼ŵ͡ûԺѵԧҹͧкؤ աþѲҵͧҧͧ ѹ觼Դ稵ҵðҹ٧ҵðҹͧ˹

                ѺèѴ觻ͧöй չѡԪҡ·ҹȹзᵡҧѹ͡ çԷ ʹͧ (2547 : 10-11) ӡö͡ 3

                1)            öѡ (Core competency) ¶֧ ؤԡѴɳТͧз͹繶֧ ѡ ȹ ػ¢ͧͧЪʹѺʹعͧúµ·ȹ

                2)            öе§ҹ (Job competency) ¶֧ ؤԡѡɳТͧз͹繶֧ ѡ ȹ ػ·Ъ餹 öҧŧҹ㹡ûԺѵԧҹ˹觹 ٧ҵðҹ

                3)            öǹؤ (Personal competency) ¶֧ ؤԡѡɳТͧз͹繶֧ ѡ ȹ ػ·ؤŹդö㹡÷˹ⴴ蹡Ҥ öѺͧþ 繵 ѡ¡öǹؤҤöǹؤ

                û Ѥú (2549 : 68) ö㹵˹˹ лСͺ仴 3

 1)           öѡ (Core competency) ĵԡշءͧõͧ ʴ֧Ѳѡͧͧ

2)            öк (Professional competency) سѵԤöҹú÷ؤҡͧ÷ء繵ͧ㹡÷ӧҹ ҹ ʹͧѺἹط ·ȹ ͧͧ

3)            öԧ෤Ԥ (Technical competency) ѡдҹԪҪվ㹡ù任Ժѵԧҹؼ ¨ᵡҧѹѡɳЧҹ öṡ 2 ǹ öԧ෤Ԥѡ (Core technical competency) öԧ෤Ԥ੾ (Specific technical competency)

֧Ҩػ öö͡ 2 ѡ öѡ (Core competency) 繤سѡɳз边ѡҹءͧè繵ͧ 駹öԺѵ˹ҷ¢ͧͧ ҷ ͺǡѺͧ ѵ ФѺԴͺ 繵 ա˹觤öе§ҹ (Functional competency) 繤سѡɳз边ѡҹ軯Ժѵԧҹ㹵˹觵ҧ ҹѾͧ

 

 

 

 

 

óҹء

 

û Ѥú. 2549. ҧҧŧҹ. ا෾ҹ:(1996).

٪ Է. 2550. äѴ͡ СûԹšûԺѵԧҹͧؤҡ. 2. ا෾ҹ: ӹѡ觨ŧóԷ.

çԷ ʹͧ. 2547. ѡ COMPETENCY ѹ. ا෾ҹ: ͪ .

Boyatizis, R.E. 1982. The Competent Manager. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mitrani, A., Dalziel, M., and Fitt, D. 1992. Competency based human resource management: Value driven strategies for recruitment, development, and reward. London: McGraw-Hill.

Spencer, M and Spencer, M.S. 1993. Competence at work: Models for Superiors Performance. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Dales, M and Hes, K. 1995. Creating Training miracles. Sydney: Prentice Hall.




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